8 Search Results Found For: "Guidance for Healthcare Providers"

Page Title: Healthcare Providers

Page Content:

San Bernardino County Department of Public Health Preparedness and Response Program serves a wide range of healthcare professionals, including: physicians, nurses, physician’s assistants, pharmacists, paramedics, veterinarians, epidemiologists, public health practitioners.
 
We provide timely, accurate, and credible information and guidance to healthcare providers related to emergency preparedness and response and emerging public health threats.
 
Our goal is to strengthen information-sharing networks before, during, and after a public health emergency.

Healthcare Providers

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/prp/healthcare-providers/


Page Title: Coronavirus 2019

Page Content:

The San Bernardino County Department of Public Health (DPH) continues to work with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) to respond to reports of Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) as the situation is quickly evolving.

Residents of San Bernardino County are encouraged to stay home as much as possible while only participating in essential activities, such as critical work functions and shopping for necessities. We know these measures are challenging, but social distancing will help to protect all of our communities. We encourage older adults and those with chronic medical conditions to take additional precautions to avoid getting sick with the disease.

The County Acting Health Officer has ordered the cancellation of all gatherings based on CDPH’s Gathering Guidance and provided other guidance to the public in an effort to protect our population from any possible spread of the virus. Please stay home if ill, regularly wash hands with soap and water, clean frequently touched surfaces and objects daily and practice social distancing. To prevent stigma and discrimination, it is important to remember that the risk of COVID-19 is not related to race, ethnicity or culture. Do not make determinations of risk based on race or country of origin and be sure to maintain confidentiality of people with confirmed COVID-19.

All San Bernardino County residents and visitors are strongly encouraged to continue to practice good public health hygiene and follow guidance from CDC, CDPH and DPH to protect themselves from possibly spreading any illness. 

For the most updated information about COVID-19, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

COVID-19 SURVEILLANCE DASHBOARD

Screenshot of San Bernardino County Surveillance Dashboard

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977

COVID-19 CASES IN
SAN BERNARDINO
COUNTY

31

COVID-19 ASSOCIATED DEATHS IN
SAN BERNARDINO
COUNTY

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COVID-19 HOTLINE

General Information and Resources for San Bernardino County Residents

(909) 387-3911

Monday through Friday
9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

The hotline is NOT for medical calls. If you are feeling sick, please contact your health care provider. Call 9-1-1 ONLY if you have a medical emergency. If you have questions about social services, please call 2-1-1.

News Releases and Health Officer Orders

COVID-19 crisis endures, but County plans for recovery (Apr. 13, 2020)

Homeless sheltering effort to protect all county residents gets underway (Apr. 13, 2020)

Specimen collection for COVID-19 testing to be held in Montclair (Apr. 10, 2020)

County, partners provide more locations for drive-up COVID-19 testing (Apr. 10, 2020)

San Bernardino County mountains closed to snow play (Apr. 9, 2020)

Clarification of religious services and face-coverings order (Apr. 8, 2020)

Public Health officer orders face covering, electronic-only religious services (Apr. 7, 2020)

HEALTH OFFICER ORDER – Stay-At-Home Order to include Face Coverings for Essential Outings (Apr. 7, 2020)

County creates Nursing Facilities Task Force; issues order mandating patient safety measures (Apr. 6, 2020)

HEALTH OFFICER ORDER – For the Control of COVID-19 Requirements for all Individuals Entering Certain Licensed Facilities and Other Agencies Who are Not a Patient, Existing Resident, or New Resident; Temperature Screening and Self-Evaluation for COVID-19 Symptoms, Masking of All Staff While in Facility, Avoiding Staff Working in Multiple Facilities (Attachment A and B) (Apr. 6, 2020)

Public Health officer recommends face coverings during essential outings (Apr. 2, 2020)

Health Officer formally prohibits short-term rentals (Apr. 2, 2020)

HEALTH OFFICER ORDER – Extension of March 17th Order and Clarification on the Order Related to Lodging Facilities (Apr. 2, 2020)

County offices and attractions will remain closed to public traffic (Apr. 2, 2020)

Twelve reported COVID-19 cases at California Institution for Men, Chino (Apr. 1, 2020)

Traffic requirements for tomorrow’s COVID-19 testing in Victorville (Apr. 1, 2020)

Sample collection for COVID-19 testing to be held in Victorville (Mar. 31, 2020)

County COVID-19 dashboard now includes confirmed cases by city (Mar. 30, 2020)

COVID-19 outbreak in Yucaipa nursing facility (Mar. 28, 2020)

Public Health to hold drive-thru testing; COVID-19 dashboard coming soon (Mar. 25, 2020)

Second death associated with COVID-19 recorded within county (Mar. 25, 2020)

San Bernardino County COVID-19 Press Conference (VIDEO) (Mar. 25, 2020)

First death associated with COVID-19 recorded within county (Mar. 24, 2020)

31 cases of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 24, 2020)

Short-term rentals advised to comply with health orders (Mar. 23, 2020)

Eight new cases of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 22, 2020)

Social distancing options created for Supervisors meetings (Mar. 21, 2020)

Four new cases of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 20, 2020)

County clarifies March 17 Public Health Order (Mar. 19, 2020)

County closes additional offices to public traffic (Spanish) (Mandarin) (Mar. 19, 2020)

Two new cases of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 18, 2020)

County orders cancellation of all gatherings; Third case confirmed (Mar. 17, 2020)

HEALTH OFFICER ORDER – Cancelling All Gatherings | Orden Del Oficial De Salud Del Condado De San Bernardino Cancelando Todas Las Reuniones (Mar. 17, 2020)

Second case of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 16, 2020)

County closes several public attractions and public offices (Mar. 16, 2020)

First case of novel coronavirus recorded within county (Mar. 15, 2020)

Health Officer orders cancellation of large gatherings; no local cases in County (Mar. 13, 2020)

County orders cancellation of large gatherings (Mar. 12, 2020)

County declares local health emergency; Still no cases in the county (Mar. 11, 2020)

HEALTH OFFICER ORDER – Mandated COVID-19 Reporting (Mar. 10, 2020)

County continues to monitor COVID-19; reports no local cases (Mar. 9, 2020)

Governor declares State of Emergency; County reports no local cases (Mar. 5, 2020)

County continues to monitor COVID-19; reports no local cases (Mar. 2, 2020)

County continues to monitor COVID-19; reports no local cases (Feb. 28, 2020)

County continues to monitor novel coronavirus; reports no local cases (Feb. 5, 2020)

County monitoring Novel Coronavirus; reports no local cases (Jan. 31, 2020)

County monitoring Novel Coronavirus; reports no local cases (Jan. 28, 2020)

Community Drive-Through Events

In efforts to provide more testing opportunities for San Bernardino County residents, community drive-through sample collection events are being held throughout the county. Samples are collected by public health professionals by inserting a nasal swab up the nostril. These samples are then sent to a laboratory for COVID-19 testing. All persons must meet criteria to be tested. Events are free of charge and do not require health insurance.

Community drive-through sample collection events are currently being planned for Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino and Victorville. Additional events and event details will be announced as they are confirmed.

Please remember, if you are showing symptoms of COVID-19, you can still call your doctor and they can determine if you need testing. 

Upcoming Community Drive-Through Sample Collection Events

Montclair – Montclair Place
5060 E. Montclair Plaza Lane, Montclair (south parking lot off Monte Vista Avenue)
Tuesday, April 14
10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Appointment only. Appointment slots are no longer available for this event.

Big Bear Lake – Fox Farm Lot
41850 Garstin Dr., Big Bear Lake
Friday, April 17
10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Appointment only. Details will be announced.

Joshua Tree – Copper Mountain College
6162 Rotary Way, Joshua Tree
Wednesday, April 22
10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Appointment only. Details will be announced.

Rancho Cucamonga – Rancho Cucamonga Quakes Stadium (LoanMart Field)
8408 Rochester Ave., Rancho Cucamonga
April 27
10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Appointment only. Details will be announced.

Guidance for Cities

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Guidance for Homes and Residential Communities

Preventing COVID-19 Spread in Communities
Information on how to prepare and take action at home, childcare and K-12 schools, colleges and universities, work, healthcare settings, large community events/mass gatherings and for first responders 

Information for Specific Groups
Information for Businesses, Schools, Pregnant Women and Children, and Travelers

Public Health Media Library
Free credible health content for your websites, apps and social media

Coronavirus Self-Checker

Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission

Interim Guidance for Implementing Safety Practices for Critical Infrastructure Workers Who May Have Had Exposure to a Person with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 (PDF Flyer)

CDC/CISA Essential Critical Workers / Employers Do’s and Don’ts Flyer

California Department of Public Health

Guidance for Gatherings

Stay Home except for Essential Needs

Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers

Guidance for Food and Beverage Venues

Guidance for Entertainment Venues
Guidance regarding gambling venues, theme parks and theaters

COVID-19 Cleaning & Waste Management for Residences

Guidance for Individuals with Access and Functional Needs

Guidance documents for home cleaning with COVID-19 positive individuals
Guidance for people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 who are able to receive care at home, and to their household members and/or caregivers, regarding the cleaning of residences and disposal of waste

Self-Isolation for Older Adults and Those Who Have Elevated Risk

San Bernardino County Department of Public Health

Low Cost Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers

DPH Home Isolation Instructions for COVID-19

Office of the Governor

California Volunteers
Information and resources on how to safely donate, volunteer and/or help your local community

Guidance for Healthcare Providers

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Information for Healthcare Professionals
Variety of information for Healthcare Professionals including information about Persons Under Investigation (PUI), Clinical Care, Infection Control, Supply of Personal Protective Equipment, Home Care and much more

Resources for Hospitals and Healthcare Professionals Preparing for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19
CDC has developed two checklists that identify key actions that can be taken now to enhance preparedness for potential or confirmed patients with COVID-19.

Interim U.S. Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health Management of Healthcare Personnel with Potential Exposure in a Healthcare Setting to Patients with COVID-19

Healthcare Professionals: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

California Department of Public Health

Guidance documents for health care facilities, including long-term care facilities

Prioritization of Patients for Laboratory Testing for COVID-19

Testing Guidance for Health Care Providers and Laboratories 

Use of Personal Protective Equipment during COVID-19 Outbreak

COVID-19 Guidance for Dentistry

Infection Control Recommendations for Facilities with Suspect COVID-19 Patients

Outpatient Healthcare Facility Infection Control Recommendations for Suspect COVID-19 Patients

Guidance for Procedures and Transfer of Deceased Persons with Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19

San Bernardino County Department of Public Health

COVID-19 Communicable Disease Referral Form

COVID-19 Recommendations for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNF)

COVID-19 Infection Prevention and Control Toolkit for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNF)

COVID-19 Skilled Nursing Facilities/Long-Term Care Facilities Visitor Questionnaire

Key Points for Healthcare Providers on COVID-19 Testing

DPH Guidance for Clinicians: Evaluating Patients Who May Have COVID-19

DPH Testing Guidance for Health Care Providers and Laboratories

Home Care Instructions for Patients with Mild Respiratory Infection (Español)

COVID-19 Specimen Intake Form

DPH Home Isolation Instructions for COVID-19 (Español)

Low Cost Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers

SBC Interfacility Transfer Rules

State of California Department of Social Services

Guidance documents for community care facilities, including assisted living facilities and child care

State of California Labor and Workforce Development Agency

Guidance documents for health care workers and workers in general industry

State of California Department of Industrial Relations

Cal/OSHA Interim Guidance on Coronavirus for Health Care Facilities: Efficient Use of Respirator Supplies

California Cyber Security Integration Center (Cal-CSIC)

Cyber Security Tips, Guidance, and Advisories for Scams and Data Theft related to COVID-19 for Medical Professionals

Guidance for First Responders and Law Enforcement
Guidance for Laboratories
Guidance for Employers/Businesses

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Resources for Business and Employers

Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers to Plan and Respond to COVID-19

Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations

Coronavirus Self-Checker

Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission

Interim Guidance for Implementing Safety Practices for Critical Infrastructure Workers Who May Have Had Exposure to a Person with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 (PDF Flyer)

CDC/CISA Essential Critical Workers / Employers Do’s and Don’ts Flyer

California Department of Public Health

Face Coverings Guidance

Guidance for Gatherings

CDPH Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers

Guidance for Food and Beverage Venues
Guidance regarding restaurants, bars, wineries, food trucks, grocery stores and farmers’ markets

Guidance for Entertainment Venues
Guidance regarding gambling venues, theme parks and theaters

Guidance for Individuals with Access and Functional Needs

San Bernardino County 

Economic Development Agency
San Bernardino County business resources information

DPH Home Isolation Instructions for COVID-19 (Español)

DPH COVID-19 – What to do if you are Sick

DPH COVID-19 – Disinfection Instructions

State of California Labor and Workforce Development Agency

Resources for Employers and Workers

U.S. Small Business Administration 

Disaster Loan Assistance
Federal disaster loans for businesses, private nonprofits, homeowners and renters

Office of the Governor

California Volunteers
Information and resources on how to safely donate, volunteer and/or help your local community

Guidance for Communities

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Coronavirus Self-Checker

Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission

Protect Yourself and Your Family

Preventing COVID-19 Spread in Communities

Resources for Large Community Events and Mass Gatherings
Includes Interim Guidance and Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations

Resources for Community- and Faith- Based Leaders
Includes Interim Guidance, Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations and Preparation Checklist

California Department of Public Health

Face Coverings Guidance

Guidance for Gatherings

CDPH Stay Home except for Essential Needs

CDPH Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers

Guidance documents for home cleaning with COVID-19 positive individuals
Guidance for people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 who are able to receive care at home, and to their household members and/or caregivers, regarding the cleaning of residences and disposal of waste

Self-Isolation for Older Adults and Those Who Have Elevated Risk

COVID-19 Cleaning & Waste Management for Residences

Community care facilities, including assisted living facilities and child care

Information for WIC Families 

Information for Women and Families

Immigrant Communities

Guidance for Individuals with Access and Functional Needs

COVID-19 Information for those living with HIV

San Bernardino County Department of Public Health

Home Isolation Instructions for COVID-19 (Español)

Home Care Instructions for Patients with Mild Respiratory Infection (Español)

COVID-19 – What to do if you are Sick

COVID-19 – Disinfection Instructions

Low Cost Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers

Office of the Governor

California Volunteers
Information and resources on how to safely donate, volunteer and/or help your local community

Guidance for Schools

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Resources for K-12 Schools and Childcare Programs

Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Childcare Programs and K-12 Schools

Resources for Institutes of Higher Education

Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Institutions of Higher Education (IHE)

Guidance for Student Foreign Travel for Institutions of Higher Education

Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations

Hygiene Etiquette & Practice – Coughing & Sneezing

Handwashing Health Promotion Materials
A variety of educational resources about keeping hands clean and preventing illnesses

California Department of Public Health

New COVID-19 Guidance for K-12 Schools: Distance Learning, School Meals, Child Care and Student Supervision

Guidance for Child Care and Preschool Settings

Guidance for Schools and School Districts

Guidance for Higher Education (Colleges and Universities)

Guidance documents for home cleaning with COVID-19 positive individuals
Guidance for people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 who are able to receive care at home, and to their household members and/or caregivers, regarding the cleaning of residences and disposal of waste

Directrices para las escuelas sobre el nuevo coronavirus o COVID-19

Directrices para las instituciones de educación superior sobre el nuevo coronavirus o COVID-19

San Bernardino County Department of Public Health

DPH Home Isolation Instructions for COVID-19 (Español)

Home Care Instructions for Patients with Mild Respiratory Infection (Español)

COVID-19 – What to do if you are Sick

COVID-19 – Disinfection Instructions

San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools

SBCSS COVID-19 Information
For updated information on school closures and additional information for schools in San Bernardino County

California Department of Education

Distance Learning

School Meals

Child Care and Student Supervision

Association of California School Administrators

Coronavirus Resources for Schools
Contains resources from public health agencies relevant to California schools

US Homeland Security Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)

Guidance on Essential Critical Infrastructure Workforce

Office of the Governor

California Volunteers
Information and resources on how to safely donate, volunteer and/or help your local community

Educational Materials

CDC COVID-19 Handouts and Posters

CDC Public Health Media Library
Free credible health content for your websites, apps and social media

CDPH COVID-19 Graphics (English) (Español)

Hygiene Etiquette & Practice – Coughing & Sneezing

Handwashing Health Promotion Materials
A variety of educational resources about keeping hands clean and preventing illnesses

Prepare for Public Health Emergencies (Español)

Resources

COVID-19 Information

Coronavirus (COVID-19) in California

California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

CDPH Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

World Health Organization

COVID-19 in American Sign Language

COVID-19 Data, Maps, Dashboards

COVID-19 Geographic Information System (GIS) Hub

Social Services

Low-Cost Clinics and Federally Qualified Health Centers
List of clinics that provide medical services for the uninsured

Dignity Health Virtual Care Anywhere 
Download the Virtual Care Anywhere app in the Apple App Store or Google Play Store and use coupon code COVID19 (More details)

California Smokers’ Helpline

Free School Meals Sites in San Bernardino County

Employment Development Department
Provides a variety of support services to individuals financially affected by COVID-19 in California

California Volunteers
Information and resources on how to safely donate, volunteer and/or help your local community

Guidance Documents for Health Care Plans for Screening and Testing for COVID-19

Department of Managed Health Care All Plan Letter

California Department of Insurance Bulletin

There are a number of steps you can take to protect your health and those around you:

  • Stay home except for essential needs. Everyone is required to stay home except to get food, care for a relative or friend, get necessary health care, or go to an essential job.
  • If you must leave your home for an essential outing, wear a face covering that covers your nose and mouth and keep at least 6 feet of distance from other people. Surgical and N95 masks are not recommended for the general population and should be used only by healthcare workers.
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water for 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; before eating; and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing. If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth, especially with unwashed hands.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using regular household cleaning spray or wipes.
  • If someone does become sick with respiratory symptoms like fever and cough, they should stay away from other people to avoid spreading illness and contact their healthcare provider if symptoms become severe.
Dr. Erin Gustafson

San Bernardino County Acting Health Officer

Last updated April 14, 2020

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/coronavirus/


Page Title: Copy of – Emerging Diseases

Page Content:

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19, formerly known as 2019-nCoV) is a virus that has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness. The first detection of COVID-19 occurred in Wuhan, China. Initially it was thought to be animal-to-person transmission, due to the majority of the infected being linked to the animal and seafood market. However, after a growing number of patients having no ties to these markets, it is indicated that person-to-person transmission is occurring. It is unclear at this time how easily the virus is being spread between people. For the most recent situation summaries and updates please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web page.

Symptoms and Complications

The symptoms of COVID-19 infection range from little to no symptoms, to individuals being severely ill and dying. Some symptoms of COVID-19 include, but are not limited to:

         • Fever
         • Cough
         • Shortness of breath

Currently the CDC believes that symptoms appear in as little as 2 days or as long as 14 days after being exposed. These times are based off of the previous incubation period of MERS viruses.

Transmission

Coronaviruses come from a large family of viruses that are commonly found in different animal species such as camels, cattle, cats, and bats. It is rare for a coronavirus to infect a person, and then spread from that person to another person, such as cases of MERS and SARS.

In the case of person-to-person transmission it is thought to have been transferred via respiratory droplets that are emitted into the air when an infected individuals coughs or sneezes. This is similar to how influenza and other respiratory illnesses are spread. It is important to look at how easily a virus is able to be spread from person-to-person. Some viruses are extremely contagious, such as measles, while others are much less contagious. COVID-19 is being considered a serious public health threat by the CDC, however, based on the current information, the immediate health risk to the general public in America is considered low for the time being.

Prevention and Treatment

Currently there is no vaccine to prevent COVID-19. The best prevention is avoiding the virus as much as possible. The CDC also always recommends everyday preventative measures be taken to help prevent the virus being spread. These measures include:

          • Hand washing often with soap and water for no less than 20 seconds.
          • If access to soap and water is not available, the use of alcohol base sanitizer is recommended.
          • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth without first washing your hands.
          • Avoid contact with sick individuals
          • Stay home if you are sick
          • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then immediately dispose of the tissue in the trash.
          • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that are frequently touched as much as possible.

By having these everyday habits you can help to prevent the spread of several different viruses, including COVID-19.

 

Tuberculosis Prevention and Care

The Tuberculosis Control Program performs disease detection, surveillance, case management, and investigatory activities designed to control the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the County. The program provides tuberculosis information and educational resources for the Department, medical community, and general public. Please call (800) 722-4794 to speak to a TB staff member.

Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is expecting a nationwide 3-10 month shortage of Aplisol (a product of Par Pharmaceuticals) which is one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens used when performing TB skin tests.

The interruption of Aplisol 5 mL (50 multi-dose vial) supply started in June 2019 with an expected shortage of Aplisol 1mL (10 multi-dose vial) to begin in November 2019. However, the shortage of the Aplisol 1mL could occur sooner than November 2019 depending on the demand.

To obtain up to date information regarding the status of the shortage please visit the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research-Regulated Products website listed below. https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/safety-availability-biologics/cber-regulated-products-current-shortages

The following link outlines the CDC’s recommendations for dealing with the reduction in TB testing capability. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6824a4.htm

Clinical Services Offered

Skin testing for tuberculosis is offered at Department of Public Health clinics throughout the County. For more information. Please call (800) 722-4777 for an appointment and information on clinic locations and times.

Basic TB Facts
  • Q: What is TB?
    A: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air.
  • Q: How is TB spread?
    A: TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease in the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. People who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected.
  • Q: What is a latent TB infection?
    A: People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, but they are not sick because the germs are not active. These people do not have symptoms of TB disease and they cannot spread the germs to others. However, they may develop TB disease in the future.
  • Q: How do you know if you have latent TB?
    A: A TB skin test is used to test for latent TB.
  • Q:Treatment
    A: Both latent TB infection and TB disease can be treated with medication.
Tuberculosis - Information for Providers

Per Health and Safety Code Section 120175, local health departments as designated by the Health Officer are responsible for preventing the spread of tuberculosis within their jurisdictions. They are granted the authority to take the necessary measures to prevent the spread. When care is not provided by the department of public health TB Controller, the local health department tuberculosis program will oversee a case. View the Guidelines for Oversight of Tuberculosis Care. For information you can also visit the Current CDPH-CTCA Joint Guidelines website.

The Tuberculosis Control Program offers case management services to all patients with active TB disease. A TB clinician and controller is also available to answer any questions regarding the medical management of your patient. Call 800-722-4794 to speak to a TB clinician and controller.

The Tuberculosis Control Program also offers directly observed therapy (DOT) to patients who meet certain criteria. Please read the Guidelines for DOT for information on eligibility criteria.

Report a Case of Tuberculosis

Health care providers must report suspected or confirmed cases of TB to the Tuberculosis Control Program. Please fill out a TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines for your hospitalized or clinic patient and fax to (909) 387-6377. Follow up with a phone call to one of our TB nurses at (800) 722-4794.

Initial TB Case Report Form
TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines

Reporting Tuberculosis Infection Using Skin Tuberculin Test or IGRA

Health care providers can submit a report of a TB infection, such as a positive skin tuberculin test or interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) (i.e. QuatiFERON Gold), using a Confidential Morbidity Report (CMR). This form is only to be used to report a positive tuberculin skin test or IGRA.

Any active or suspect cases must be made using the forms outlined in “Report a Case of Tuberculosis” section. These types of cases will not be accepted on a CMR form.

Tuberculosis - Information for Civil Surgeons

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised the Tuberculosis (TB) Technical Instructions for Civil Surgeons. These instructions went into effect on October 1, 2018. These instructions now require that civil surgeons report all persons diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the local health department where the applicant resides. These new requirements also include the use of a TB blood test [interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)] instead of a tuberculin skin test (TST) for TB screening of applicants’ ≥ 2 years old.

Civil surgeons are also required to refer all applicants whose CXR findings are suggestive of TB disease, all applicants with symptoms or signs of TB disease, all applicants with known HIV infection, and all applicants with extrapulmonary TB to the local health department for further evaluation.

To report LTBI using the CMR
To report TB disease or suggestive TB disease use the: Initial TB Case Report Form

tb test
TB-related Resources

TB Fact Sheet

Hoja de información sobre la Tuberculosis

Guidelines for Treatment:
California Tuberculosis Controllers Association

Health Information & Patient Fact Sheets:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of TB Elimination

TB Training & Educational Resources:
Curry International TB Center

Find an FQHC clinic for TB services click here

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria
(germs). Syphilis is easy to cure. Without treatment, it can hurt your
body’s organs. Congenital syphilis is when a pregnant woman passes
syphilis to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth. It can cause a
woman to have a baby too early or cause a miscarriage or stillbirth (a
baby born dead). It can also lead to serious health problems in babies.

Symptoms

Often people don’t notice symptoms, so they don’t know they’re
infected. Signs of syphilis may include a sore near the area where the
germ entered the body (vagina, anus, lips, or mouth) or rash on one or
more areas of the body. The symptoms may appear and disappear.
The only way to know for sure is to get tested.

Transmission

You can get syphilis by having contact with a syphilis sore during
vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Sores can be found on the penis, vagina,
anus, or on the lips and mouth. You may not see the sores and they
don’t cause pain. Congenital syphilis spreads from mother to baby
during pregnancy or birth.

Treatment

Syphilis can be treated and cured with antibiotics (medicine that kills
germs). Make sure your sex partner(s) get tested and treated too. This
will help them stay healthy, avoid infecting others, and avoid
re-infecting you.

Prevention and Testing

  • Use condoms.
  • Go to your doctor for testing and treatment as early as possible.

If you don’t have a regular doctor, call (800) 722-4777 to make
an appointment for clinic services at San Bernardino County
clinics.
Test if you are experiencing symptoms. Test if you are getting tested
for other STDs. If you are having sex without using a condom and/or
have multiple sex partners, get tested every 6 months. If you are a
man having sex with other men, get tested every 3-6 months. Test if
you are a woman and plan to get pregnant. If you’re pregnant, remind
your doctor to test you three times: during your first trimester (1 – 12
weeks), third trimester (28 – 32 weeks), and at delivery.

 

Measles

What Is Measles?

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease. Symptoms include a high fever, runny nose (coryza), cough, loss of appetite, a rash, and red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis). The rash usually lasts 5–6 days, begins at the hairline, moves to the face and upper neck, and proceeds down the body.

How Long Does It Take to Show Signs of Measles After Being Exposed?

It takes an average of 7-14 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash appears approximately 14 days after exposure, usually 2–3 days after the fever begins.

What Should Be Done If Someone Is Exposed to Measles?

Notification of the exposure should be communicated to a doctor. If the person exposed has not been vaccinated, measles vaccine may prevent disease if given within 72 hours of exposure. Immune globulin (a blood product containing antibodies to the measles virus) may prevent or lessen the severity of measles if given within six days of exposure.

How Can Measles Be Prevented?

There is a vaccine available to prevent measles. Vaccines are available from your medical provider or the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health clinics. View the Public Health’s Clinic Locations webpage for information about clinic locations and times or call the Communicable Disease Section at 1 (800) 722-4794, Monday through Friday, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. to find a location near you. For more information, view the Centers of Disease Control Measles information webpage.

measles
Measles-related Resources

Measles Investigation Quick Sheet – California Department of Public Health

Laboratory Testing for Measles – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – Centers for Disease Control

Hepatitis A

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A (hep A) is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The mode of transmission for HAV is through the fecal-oral route and can be easily spread when consuming food, drinking water, or touching an object contaminated with fecal matter. Hepatitis A does not usually cause long-term liver damage. However, in rare cases, it can lead to a sudden loss of liver function.

Symptoms of hep A include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort, clay-colored bowel movements, loss of appetite, dark urine, joint pain, yellowing of the skin and white of your eyes (jaundice), and intense itching. They generally do not appear until a person has had the infection for a few weeks.

Unvaccinated individuals are at highest risk.

Individuals who are unvaccinated against hep A, those who travel to or live in countries where hep A is common, msm (men who have sex with men) individuals, the homeless, IV drug users, household members or caregivers of a person with hep A, and those with clotting factor disorders are at highest risk of hep A.

While hep A is highly contagious, it is easily preventable by getting the hep A vaccine.

zika
Zika-related Resources

SBCDPH News Release on the Zika Virus 2016

Zika Information – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Non-native Mosquito Species – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Zika

Mosquitos and Vector Control Program – San Bernardino County Department of Public Health (SBCDPH)

Centers for Disease Control – For Healthcare Providers

Zika

What Is the Zika Virus?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that prior to 2015 occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. However, in May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert about the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Since then Zika virus has been identified in several countries throughout South and Central America, and the Caribbean. There are currently no local detections of the Zika virus in San Bernardino County. For up-to-date information on where Zika is locally transmitted, please view the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

Most people infected with Zika virus will not develop symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they are usually mild and include fever, joint pain, rash and eye redness. If you have returned from an affected country and have any of these symptoms within two weeks, or any other symptoms following your return, please contact your medical provider and tell the doctor where you have traveled. While there is no specific treatment for the Zika virus disease, the best recommendations are supportive care, rest, fluids and fever relief.

How Is It Spread?

Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, which actively bite humans during the daytime. These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. Zika virus is rarely spread from person to person. There have been rare instances of sexual and perinatal (mother-to-child) transmission, as well as through blood transfusion.

What Are the Symptoms?

Although most people who become infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, approximately 20% may develop acute onset of fever with rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms begin between 2 and 12 days (most commonly 3-7 days) after exposure to the virus. Other commonly reported symptoms include muscle aches and headache that may last for several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and deaths from the disease are rare. However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection.

Pregnancy and Zika

The Zika virus can cause birth defects in pregnant women. Researchers have amassed enough evidence to conclude that Zika infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly (abnormal brain and small heads) and other severe fetal brain defects.

Zika and Pregnancy Poster
Zika y Embarazo

What Can You Do?

Residents can still take precautions to avoid mosquito breeding areas around their homes by following these tips.

  • Drain or Dump – Remove all standing water around your property where mosquitos lay eggs such as birdbaths, old tires, pet watering dishes, buckets, or even clogged gutters.
  • Clean and scrub any container with stored water to remove possible eggs.
  • Dress – Wear shoes, socks, long pants and long-sleeved shirts whenever you are outdoors to avoid mosquito bites.
  • DEET – Apply insect repellent containing DEET, PICARDIN, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • Doors – Make sure doors and windows have tight-fitting screens. Repair or replace screens that have tears or holes to prevent mosquitos from entering your home.
  • Report – If you notice small black and white mosquitoes in or around your home contact the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, DEHS MVCP at (800) 442-2283.
whooping cough
Pertussis-related Resources

Pertussis – California Department of Public Health

Pertussis – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

What You Need to Know

Whooping cough, known medically as pertussis, is a very contagious disease caused by a bacteria. It can cause serious illness in babies, children and adults. Babies are most at risk, because they are too young to be fully vaccinated.

Symptoms

The disease usually starts with cold-like symptoms and maybe a mild cough or fever. Symptoms of pertussis usually develop within 5 to 10 days after being exposed, but sometimes not for as long as 3 weeks. People with pertussis have severe coughing attacks that can last for months. As the disease progresses, the traditional symptoms of pertussis may appear and include many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop”, throwing up during or after coughing fits and exhaustion following a coughing fit.

In babies, the cough can be minimal or not even there. Babies may have a symptom known as “apnea.” Apnea is a pause in the child’s breathing pattern. Babies too young for vaccination are at greatest risk for life-threatening cases of pertussis. In babies younger than 1 year old who get pertussis, about half need care in the hospital. The younger the baby, the more likely treatment in the hospital will be needed.

How Pertussis Spreads

Whooping cough (pertussis) is most contagious before the coughing starts. People with pertussis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the pertussis bacteria. Many babies are infected by parents, older siblings, or other caregivers who might not even know they have the disease.

Pertussis In California

There were 4,705 cases of pertussis with onset in 2015 reported to the California Department of Public Health, for a rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000 population. This includes 271 hospitalizations; 70 (26%) of these required intensive care. Of those hospitalized, 179 (66%) were infants younger than four months of age. Of those with pertussis onset in 2015, there were two deaths: one was a baby that was less than three weeks of age at the time of disease onset, and the other was an elderly woman with underlying health problems. (CDPH Pertussis Report dated June 27, 2016.)

Public Health Clinics in San Bernardino County

Pertussis vaccine is available at County Public Health Clinics. To make an appointment call 1 (800) 722-4777.

How To Prevent Pertussis

The best way to prevent pertussis (whooping cough) among babies, children, teens, and adults is to get vaccinated. Also, keep babies and other people at high risk for pertussis complications away from infected people. There are two vaccines used in the United States to help prevent whooping cough: DTaP and Tdap. These vaccines also provide protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Children younger than 7 years old get DTaP, while older children and adults get Tdap. Babies should begin their DTaP series by 2 months of age.

Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Child Care or Preschool
Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Grades TK/K-12

A single dose of Tdap is recommended for:

  • Children and teens 11 through 18 years of age
  • Adults 19 years of age and older
  • Children 7-10 years of age who are not fully vaccinated against pertussis
  • Pregnant women

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pregnant women get a Tdap vaccine between the 27th and 36th week of each pregnancy, to create protective antibodies that pass to the baby before birth. These antibodies provide the baby some short-term protection against whooping cough in early life when the baby is too young to get vaccinated with DTaP.

Mumps

What Is Mumps?

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The virus that causes Mumps primarily affects the parotid glands — one of three pairs of saliva-producing (salivary) glands, situated below and in front of your ears. Mumps is easily spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract.

What Are the Symptoms?

Mumps is best known for the puffy cheeks and swollen jaws that it causes. This is a result of swollen salivary glands. The most common symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks.

How Do I Prevent Getting Mumps?

Mumps can be prevented with MMR vaccine. This protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. CDC recommends children get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults, who do not have evidence of immunity, should also be up-to-date on their MMR vaccination.

Children may also get MMRV vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children who are 12 months through 12 years of age.

Mumps on College Campuses

Mumps – CDC
Mumps – CDPH

mumps

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/cds/copy-of-emerging-diseases/


Page Title: Copy of – TB & Emerging Diseases

Page Content:

2019 Novel Coronavirus

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus that has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness. The first detection of 2019-nCoV occurred in Wuhan, China. Initially it was thought to be animal-to-person transmission, due to the majority of the infected being linked to the animal and seafood market. However, after a growing number of patients having no ties to these markets, it is indicated that person-to-person transmission is occurring. It is unclear at this time how easily the virus is being spread between people. For the most recent situation summaries and updates please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web page on 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China.

Symptoms and Complications

The symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection range from little to no symptoms, to individuals being severely ill and dying. Some symptoms of 2019-nCoV include, but are not limited to:
           • Fever
           • Cough
           • Shortness of breath
Currently the CDC believes that symptoms appear in as little as 2 days or as long as 14 days after being exposed. These times are based off of the previous incubation period of MERS viruses.

Transmission

Coronaviruses come from a large family of viruses that are commonly found in different animal species such as camels, cattle, cats, and bats. It is rare for a coronavirus to infect a person, and then spread from that person to another person, such as cases of MERS and SARS.

In the case of person-to-person transmission it is thought to have been transferred via respiratory droplets that are emitted into the air when an infected individuals coughs or sneezes. This is similar to how influenza and other respiratory illnesses are spread. It is important to look at how easily a virus is able to be spread from person-to-person. Some viruses are extremely contagious, such as measles, while others are much less contagious. 2019-nCoV is being considered a serious public health threat by the CDC, however, based on the current information, the immediate health risk to the general public in America is considered low for the time being.

Prevention and Treatment

Currently there is no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV. The best prevention is avoiding the virus as much as possible. The CDC also always recommends everyday preventative measures be taken to help prevent the virus being spread. These measures include:
• Hand washing often with soap and water for no less than 20 seconds. If access to soap and water is not available, the use of alcohol base sanitizer is recommended.
• Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth without first washing your hands.
• Avoid contact with sick individuals
• Stay home if you are sick
• Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then immediately dispose of the tissue in the trash.
• Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that are frequently touched as much as possible.
By having these everyday habits you can help to prevent the spread of several different viruses, including 2019-nCoV.

 

Tuberculosis Prevention and Care

The Tuberculosis Control Program performs disease detection, surveillance, case management, and investigatory activities designed to control the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the County. The program provides tuberculosis information and educational resources for the Department, medical community, and general public. Please call (800) 722-4794 to speak to a TB staff member.

Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is expecting a nationwide 3-10 month shortage of Aplisol (a product of Par Pharmaceuticals) which is one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens used when performing TB skin tests.

The interruption of Aplisol 5 mL (50 multi-dose vial) supply started in June 2019 with an expected shortage of Aplisol 1mL (10 multi-dose vial) to begin in November 2019. However, the shortage of the Aplisol 1mL could occur sooner than November 2019 depending on the demand.

To obtain up to date information regarding the status of the shortage please visit the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research-Regulated Products website listed below. https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/safety-availability-biologics/cber-regulated-products-current-shortages

The following link outlines the CDC’s recommendations for dealing with the reduction in TB testing capability. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6824a4.htm

Clinical Services Offered

Skin testing for tuberculosis is offered at Department of Public Health clinics throughout the County. For more information. Please call (800) 722-4777 for an appointment and information on clinic locations and times.

Basic TB Facts
  • Q: What is TB?
    A: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air.
  • Q: How is TB spread?
    A: TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease in the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. People who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected.
  • Q: What is a latent TB infection?
    A: People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, but they are not sick because the germs are not active. These people do not have symptoms of TB disease and they cannot spread the germs to others. However, they may develop TB disease in the future.
  • Q: How do you know if you have latent TB?
    A: A TB skin test is used to test for latent TB.
  • Q:Treatment
    A: Both latent TB infection and TB disease can be treated with medication.
Tuberculosis - Information for Providers

Per Health and Safety Code Section 120175, local health departments as designated by the Health Officer are responsible for preventing the spread of tuberculosis within their jurisdictions. They are granted the authority to take the necessary measures to prevent the spread. When care is not provided by the department of public health TB Controller, the local health department tuberculosis program will oversee a case. View the Guidelines for Oversight of Tuberculosis Care. For information you can also visit the Current CDPH-CTCA Joint Guidelines website.

The Tuberculosis Control Program offers case management services to all patients with active TB disease. A TB clinician and controller is also available to answer any questions regarding the medical management of your patient. Call 800-722-4794 to speak to a TB clinician and controller.

The Tuberculosis Control Program also offers directly observed therapy (DOT) to patients who meet certain criteria. Please read the Guidelines for DOT for information on eligibility criteria.

Report a Case of Tuberculosis

Health care providers must report suspected or confirmed cases of TB to the Tuberculosis Control Program. Please fill out a TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines for your hospitalized or clinic patient and fax to (909) 387-6377. Follow up with a phone call to one of our TB nurses at (800) 722-4794.

Initial TB Case Report Form
TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines

Reporting Tuberculosis Infection Using Skin Tuberculin Test or IGRA

Health care providers can submit a report of a TB infection, such as a positive skin tuberculin test or interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) (i.e. QuatiFERON Gold), using a Confidential Morbidity Report (CMR). This form is only to be used to report a positive tuberculin skin test or IGRA.

Any active or suspect cases must be made using the forms outlined in “Report a Case of Tuberculosis” section. These types of cases will not be accepted on a CMR form.

Tuberculosis - Information for Civil Surgeons

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised the Tuberculosis (TB) Technical Instructions for Civil Surgeons. These instructions went into effect on October 1, 2018. These instructions now require that civil surgeons report all persons diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the local health department where the applicant resides. These new requirements also include the use of a TB blood test [interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)] instead of a tuberculin skin test (TST) for TB screening of applicants’ ≥ 2 years old.

Civil surgeons are also required to refer all applicants whose CXR findings are suggestive of TB disease, all applicants with symptoms or signs of TB disease, all applicants with known HIV infection, and all applicants with extrapulmonary TB to the local health department for further evaluation.

To report LTBI using the CMR
To report TB disease or suggestive TB disease use the: Initial TB Case Report Form

tb test
TB-related Resources

TB Fact Sheet

Hoja de información sobre la Tuberculosis

Guidelines for Treatment:
California Tuberculosis Controllers Association

Health Information & Patient Fact Sheets:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of TB Elimination

TB Training & Educational Resources:
Curry International TB Center

Find an FQHC clinic for TB services click here

Measles

What Is Measles?

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease. Symptoms include a high fever, runny nose (coryza), cough, loss of appetite, a rash, and red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis). The rash usually lasts 5–6 days, begins at the hairline, moves to the face and upper neck, and proceeds down the body.

How Long Does It Take to Show Signs of Measles After Being Exposed?

It takes an average of 7-14 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash appears approximately 14 days after exposure, usually 2–3 days after the fever begins.

What Should Be Done If Someone Is Exposed to Measles?

Notification of the exposure should be communicated to a doctor. If the person exposed has not been vaccinated, measles vaccine may prevent disease if given within 72 hours of exposure. Immune globulin (a blood product containing antibodies to the measles virus) may prevent or lessen the severity of measles if given within six days of exposure.

How Can Measles Be Prevented?

There is a vaccine available to prevent measles. Vaccines are available from your medical provider or the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health clinics. View the Public Health’s Clinic Locations webpage for information about clinic locations and times or call the Communicable Disease Section at 1 (800) 722-4794, Monday through Friday, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. to find a location near you. For more information, view the Centers of Disease Control Measles information webpage.

measles
Measles-related Resources

Measles Investigation Quick Sheet – California Department of Public Health

Laboratory Testing for Measles – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – Centers for Disease Control

Hepatitis A

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A (hep A) is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The mode of transmission for HAV is through the fecal-oral route and can be easily spread when consuming food, drinking water, or touching an object contaminated with fecal matter. Hepatitis A does not usually cause long-term liver damage. However, in rare cases, it can lead to a sudden loss of liver function.

Symptoms of hep A include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort, clay-colored bowel movements, loss of appetite, dark urine, joint pain, yellowing of the skin and white of your eyes (jaundice), and intense itching. They generally do not appear until a person has had the infection for a few weeks.

Unvaccinated individuals are at highest risk.

Individuals who are unvaccinated against hep A, those who travel to or live in countries where hep A is common, msm (men who have sex with men) individuals, the homeless, IV drug users, household members or caregivers of a person with hep A, and those with clotting factor disorders are at highest risk of hep A.

While hep A is highly contagious, it is easily preventable by getting the hep A vaccine.

zika
Zika-related Resources

SBCDPH News Release on the Zika Virus 2016

Zika Information – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Non-native Mosquito Species – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Zika

Mosquitos and Vector Control Program – San Bernardino County Department of Public Health (SBCDPH)

Centers for Disease Control – For Healthcare Providers

Zika

What Is the Zika Virus?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that prior to 2015 occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. However, in May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert about the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Since then Zika virus has been identified in several countries throughout South and Central America, and the Caribbean. There are currently no local detections of the Zika virus in San Bernardino County. For up-to-date information on where Zika is locally transmitted, please view the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

Most people infected with Zika virus will not develop symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they are usually mild and include fever, joint pain, rash and eye redness. If you have returned from an affected country and have any of these symptoms within two weeks, or any other symptoms following your return, please contact your medical provider and tell the doctor where you have traveled. While there is no specific treatment for the Zika virus disease, the best recommendations are supportive care, rest, fluids and fever relief.

How Is It Spread?

Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, which actively bite humans during the daytime. These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. Zika virus is rarely spread from person to person. There have been rare instances of sexual and perinatal (mother-to-child) transmission, as well as through blood transfusion.

What Are the Symptoms?

Although most people who become infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, approximately 20% may develop acute onset of fever with rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms begin between 2 and 12 days (most commonly 3-7 days) after exposure to the virus. Other commonly reported symptoms include muscle aches and headache that may last for several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and deaths from the disease are rare. However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection.

Pregnancy and Zika

The Zika virus can cause birth defects in pregnant women. Researchers have amassed enough evidence to conclude that Zika infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly (abnormal brain and small heads) and other severe fetal brain defects.

Zika and Pregnancy Poster
Zika y Embarazo

What Can You Do?

Residents can still take precautions to avoid mosquito breeding areas around their homes by following these tips.

  • Drain or Dump – Remove all standing water around your property where mosquitos lay eggs such as birdbaths, old tires, pet watering dishes, buckets, or even clogged gutters.
  • Clean and scrub any container with stored water to remove possible eggs.
  • Dress – Wear shoes, socks, long pants and long-sleeved shirts whenever you are outdoors to avoid mosquito bites.
  • DEET – Apply insect repellent containing DEET, PICARDIN, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • Doors – Make sure doors and windows have tight-fitting screens. Repair or replace screens that have tears or holes to prevent mosquitos from entering your home.
  • Report – If you notice small black and white mosquitoes in or around your home contact the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, DEHS MVCP at (800) 442-2283.
whooping cough
Pertussis-related Resources

Pertussis – California Department of Public Health

Pertussis – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

What You Need to Know

Whooping cough, known medically as pertussis, is a very contagious disease caused by a bacteria. It can cause serious illness in babies, children and adults. Babies are most at risk, because they are too young to be fully vaccinated.

Symptoms

The disease usually starts with cold-like symptoms and maybe a mild cough or fever. Symptoms of pertussis usually develop within 5 to 10 days after being exposed, but sometimes not for as long as 3 weeks. People with pertussis have severe coughing attacks that can last for months. As the disease progresses, the traditional symptoms of pertussis may appear and include many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop”, throwing up during or after coughing fits and exhaustion following a coughing fit.

In babies, the cough can be minimal or not even there. Babies may have a symptom known as “apnea.” Apnea is a pause in the child’s breathing pattern. Babies too young for vaccination are at greatest risk for life-threatening cases of pertussis. In babies younger than 1 year old who get pertussis, about half need care in the hospital. The younger the baby, the more likely treatment in the hospital will be needed.

How Pertussis Spreads

Whooping cough (pertussis) is most contagious before the coughing starts. People with pertussis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the pertussis bacteria. Many babies are infected by parents, older siblings, or other caregivers who might not even know they have the disease.

Pertussis In California

There were 4,705 cases of pertussis with onset in 2015 reported to the California Department of Public Health, for a rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000 population. This includes 271 hospitalizations; 70 (26%) of these required intensive care. Of those hospitalized, 179 (66%) were infants younger than four months of age. Of those with pertussis onset in 2015, there were two deaths: one was a baby that was less than three weeks of age at the time of disease onset, and the other was an elderly woman with underlying health problems. (CDPH Pertussis Report dated June 27, 2016.)

Public Health Clinics in San Bernardino County

Pertussis vaccine is available at County Public Health Clinics. To make an appointment call 1 (800) 722-4777.

How To Prevent Pertussis

The best way to prevent pertussis (whooping cough) among babies, children, teens, and adults is to get vaccinated. Also, keep babies and other people at high risk for pertussis complications away from infected people. There are two vaccines used in the United States to help prevent whooping cough: DTaP and Tdap. These vaccines also provide protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Children younger than 7 years old get DTaP, while older children and adults get Tdap. Babies should begin their DTaP series by 2 months of age.

Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Child Care or Preschool
Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Grades TK/K-12

A single dose of Tdap is recommended for:

  • Children and teens 11 through 18 years of age
  • Adults 19 years of age and older
  • Children 7-10 years of age who are not fully vaccinated against pertussis
  • Pregnant women

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pregnant women get a Tdap vaccine between the 27th and 36th week of each pregnancy, to create protective antibodies that pass to the baby before birth. These antibodies provide the baby some short-term protection against whooping cough in early life when the baby is too young to get vaccinated with DTaP.

Mumps

What Is Mumps?

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The virus that causes Mumps primarily affects the parotid glands — one of three pairs of saliva-producing (salivary) glands, situated below and in front of your ears. Mumps is easily spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract.

What Are the Symptoms?

Mumps is best known for the puffy cheeks and swollen jaws that it causes. This is a result of swollen salivary glands. The most common symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks.

How Do I Prevent Getting Mumps?

Mumps can be prevented with MMR vaccine. This protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. CDC recommends children get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults, who do not have evidence of immunity, should also be up-to-date on their MMR vaccination.

Children may also get MMRV vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children who are 12 months through 12 years of age.

Mumps on College Campuses

Mumps – CDC
Mumps – CDPH

mumps

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/cds/copy-of-tb-emerging-diseases/


Page Title: TB & Emerging Diseases

Page Content:

2019 Novel Coronavirus

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus that has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness. The first detection of 2019-nCoV occurred in Wuhan, China. Initially it was thought to be animal-to-person transmission, due to the majority of the infected being linked to the animal and seafood market. However, after a growing number of patients having no ties to these markets, it is indicated that person-to-person transmission is occurring. It is unclear at this time how easily the virus is being spread between people. For the most recent situation summaries and updates please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web page on 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China.

Symptoms and Complications

The symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection range from little to no symptoms, to individuals being severely ill and dying. Some symptoms of 2019-nCoV include, but are not limited to:
           • Fever
           • Cough
           • Shortness of breath
Currently the CDC believes that symptoms appear in as little as 2 days or as long as 14 days after being exposed. These times are based off of the previous incubation period of MERS viruses.

Transmission

Coronaviruses come from a large family of viruses that are commonly found in different animal species such as camels, cattle, cats, and bats. It is rare for a coronavirus to infect a person, and then spread from that person to another person, such as cases of MERS and SARS.

In the case of person-to-person transmission it is thought to have been transferred via respiratory droplets that are emitted into the air when an infected individuals coughs or sneezes. This is similar to how influenza and other respiratory illnesses are spread. It is important to look at how easily a virus is able to be spread from person-to-person. Some viruses are extremely contagious, such as measles, while others are much less contagious. 2019-nCoV is being considered a serious public health threat by the CDC, however, based on the current information, the immediate health risk to the general public in America is considered low for the time being.

Prevention and Treatment

Currently there is no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV. The best prevention is avoiding the virus as much as possible. The CDC also always recommends everyday preventative measures be taken to help prevent the virus being spread. These measures include:
• Hand washing often with soap and water for no less than 20 seconds. If access to soap and water is not available, the use of alcohol base sanitizer is recommended.
• Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth without first washing your hands.
• Avoid contact with sick individuals
• Stay home if you are sick
• Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then immediately dispose of the tissue in the trash.
• Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that are frequently touched as much as possible.
By having these everyday habits you can help to prevent the spread of several different viruses, including 2019-nCoV.

 

Tuberculosis Prevention and Care

The Tuberculosis Control Program performs disease detection, surveillance, case management, and investigatory activities designed to control the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the County. The program provides tuberculosis information and educational resources for the Department, medical community, and general public. Please call (800) 722-4794 to speak to a TB staff member.

Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is expecting a nationwide 3-10 month shortage of Aplisol (a product of Par Pharmaceuticals) which is one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens used when performing TB skin tests.

The interruption of Aplisol 5 mL (50 multi-dose vial) supply started in June 2019 with an expected shortage of Aplisol 1mL (10 multi-dose vial) to begin in November 2019. However, the shortage of the Aplisol 1mL could occur sooner than November 2019 depending on the demand.

To obtain up to date information regarding the status of the shortage please visit the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research-Regulated Products website listed below. https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/safety-availability-biologics/cber-regulated-products-current-shortages

The following link outlines the CDC’s recommendations for dealing with the reduction in TB testing capability. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6824a4.htm

Clinical Services Offered

Skin testing for tuberculosis is offered at Department of Public Health clinics throughout the County. For more information. Please call (800) 722-4777 for an appointment and information on clinic locations and times.

Basic TB Facts
  • Q: What is TB?
    A: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air.
  • Q: How is TB spread?
    A: TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease in the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. People who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected.
  • Q: What is a latent TB infection?
    A: People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, but they are not sick because the germs are not active. These people do not have symptoms of TB disease and they cannot spread the germs to others. However, they may develop TB disease in the future.
  • Q: How do you know if you have latent TB?
    A: A TB skin test is used to test for latent TB.
  • Q:Treatment
    A: Both latent TB infection and TB disease can be treated with medication.
Tuberculosis - Information for Providers

Per Health and Safety Code Section 120175, local health departments as designated by the Health Officer are responsible for preventing the spread of tuberculosis within their jurisdictions. They are granted the authority to take the necessary measures to prevent the spread. When care is not provided by the department of public health TB Controller, the local health department tuberculosis program will oversee a case. View the Guidelines for Oversight of Tuberculosis Care. For information you can also visit the Current CDPH-CTCA Joint Guidelines website.

The Tuberculosis Control Program offers case management services to all patients with active TB disease. A TB clinician and controller is also available to answer any questions regarding the medical management of your patient. Call 800-722-4794 to speak to a TB clinician and controller.

The Tuberculosis Control Program also offers directly observed therapy (DOT) to patients who meet certain criteria. Please read the Guidelines for DOT for information on eligibility criteria.

Report a Case of Tuberculosis

Health care providers must report suspected or confirmed cases of TB to the Tuberculosis Control Program. Please fill out a TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines for your hospitalized or clinic patient and fax to (909) 387-6377. Follow up with a phone call to one of our TB nurses at (800) 722-4794.

Initial TB Case Report Form
TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines

Reporting Tuberculosis Infection Using Skin Tuberculin Test or IGRA

Health care providers can submit a report of a TB infection, such as a positive skin tuberculin test or interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) (i.e. QuatiFERON Gold), using a Confidential Morbidity Report (CMR). This form is only to be used to report a positive tuberculin skin test or IGRA.

Any active or suspect cases must be made using the forms outlined in “Report a Case of Tuberculosis” section. These types of cases will not be accepted on a CMR form.

Tuberculosis - Information for Civil Surgeons

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised the Tuberculosis (TB) Technical Instructions for Civil Surgeons. These instructions went into effect on October 1, 2018. These instructions now require that civil surgeons report all persons diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the local health department where the applicant resides. These new requirements also include the use of a TB blood test [interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)] instead of a tuberculin skin test (TST) for TB screening of applicants’ ≥ 2 years old.

Civil surgeons are also required to refer all applicants whose CXR findings are suggestive of TB disease, all applicants with symptoms or signs of TB disease, all applicants with known HIV infection, and all applicants with extrapulmonary TB to the local health department for further evaluation.

To report LTBI using the CMR
To report TB disease or suggestive TB disease use the: Initial TB Case Report Form

tb test
TB-related Resources

TB Fact Sheet

Hoja de información sobre la Tuberculosis

Guidelines for Treatment:
California Tuberculosis Controllers Association

Health Information & Patient Fact Sheets:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of TB Elimination

TB Training & Educational Resources:
Curry International TB Center

Find an FQHC clinic for TB services click here

Measles

What Is Measles?

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease. Symptoms include a high fever, runny nose (coryza), cough, loss of appetite, a rash, and red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis). The rash usually lasts 5–6 days, begins at the hairline, moves to the face and upper neck, and proceeds down the body.

How Long Does It Take to Show Signs of Measles After Being Exposed?

It takes an average of 7-14 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash appears approximately 14 days after exposure, usually 2–3 days after the fever begins.

What Should Be Done If Someone Is Exposed to Measles?

Notification of the exposure should be communicated to a doctor. If the person exposed has not been vaccinated, measles vaccine may prevent disease if given within 72 hours of exposure. Immune globulin (a blood product containing antibodies to the measles virus) may prevent or lessen the severity of measles if given within six days of exposure.

How Can Measles Be Prevented?

There is a vaccine available to prevent measles. Vaccines are available from your medical provider or the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health clinics. View the Public Health’s Clinic Locations webpage for information about clinic locations and times or call the Communicable Disease Section at 1 (800) 722-4794, Monday through Friday, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. to find a location near you. For more information, view the Centers of Disease Control Measles information webpage.

measles
Measles-related Resources

Measles Investigation Quick Sheet – California Department of Public Health

Laboratory Testing for Measles – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – Centers for Disease Control

Hepatitis A

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A (hep A) is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The mode of transmission for HAV is through the fecal-oral route and can be easily spread when consuming food, drinking water, or touching an object contaminated with fecal matter. Hepatitis A does not usually cause long-term liver damage. However, in rare cases, it can lead to a sudden loss of liver function.

Symptoms of hep A include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort, clay-colored bowel movements, loss of appetite, dark urine, joint pain, yellowing of the skin and white of your eyes (jaundice), and intense itching. They generally do not appear until a person has had the infection for a few weeks.

Unvaccinated individuals are at highest risk.

Individuals who are unvaccinated against hep A, those who travel to or live in countries where hep A is common, msm (men who have sex with men) individuals, the homeless, IV drug users, household members or caregivers of a person with hep A, and those with clotting factor disorders are at highest risk of hep A.

While hep A is highly contagious, it is easily preventable by getting the hep A vaccine.

zika
Zika-related Resources

SBCDPH News Release on the Zika Virus 2016

Zika Information – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Non-native Mosquito Species – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Zika

Mosquitos and Vector Control Program – San Bernardino County Department of Public Health (SBCDPH)

Centers for Disease Control – For Healthcare Providers

Zika

What Is the Zika Virus?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that prior to 2015 occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. However, in May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert about the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Since then Zika virus has been identified in several countries throughout South and Central America, and the Caribbean. There are currently no local detections of the Zika virus in San Bernardino County. For up-to-date information on where Zika is locally transmitted, please view the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

Most people infected with Zika virus will not develop symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they are usually mild and include fever, joint pain, rash and eye redness. If you have returned from an affected country and have any of these symptoms within two weeks, or any other symptoms following your return, please contact your medical provider and tell the doctor where you have traveled. While there is no specific treatment for the Zika virus disease, the best recommendations are supportive care, rest, fluids and fever relief.

How Is It Spread?

Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, which actively bite humans during the daytime. These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. Zika virus is rarely spread from person to person. There have been rare instances of sexual and perinatal (mother-to-child) transmission, as well as through blood transfusion.

What Are the Symptoms?

Although most people who become infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, approximately 20% may develop acute onset of fever with rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms begin between 2 and 12 days (most commonly 3-7 days) after exposure to the virus. Other commonly reported symptoms include muscle aches and headache that may last for several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and deaths from the disease are rare. However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection.

Pregnancy and Zika

The Zika virus can cause birth defects in pregnant women. Researchers have amassed enough evidence to conclude that Zika infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly (abnormal brain and small heads) and other severe fetal brain defects.

Zika and Pregnancy Poster
Zika y Embarazo

What Can You Do?

Residents can still take precautions to avoid mosquito breeding areas around their homes by following these tips.

  • Drain or Dump – Remove all standing water around your property where mosquitos lay eggs such as birdbaths, old tires, pet watering dishes, buckets, or even clogged gutters.
  • Clean and scrub any container with stored water to remove possible eggs.
  • Dress – Wear shoes, socks, long pants and long-sleeved shirts whenever you are outdoors to avoid mosquito bites.
  • DEET – Apply insect repellent containing DEET, PICARDIN, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • Doors – Make sure doors and windows have tight-fitting screens. Repair or replace screens that have tears or holes to prevent mosquitos from entering your home.
  • Report – If you notice small black and white mosquitoes in or around your home contact the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, DEHS MVCP at (800) 442-2283.
whooping cough
Pertussis-related Resources

Pertussis – California Department of Public Health

Pertussis – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

What You Need to Know

Whooping cough, known medically as pertussis, is a very contagious disease caused by a bacteria. It can cause serious illness in babies, children and adults. Babies are most at risk, because they are too young to be fully vaccinated.

Symptoms

The disease usually starts with cold-like symptoms and maybe a mild cough or fever. Symptoms of pertussis usually develop within 5 to 10 days after being exposed, but sometimes not for as long as 3 weeks. People with pertussis have severe coughing attacks that can last for months. As the disease progresses, the traditional symptoms of pertussis may appear and include many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop”, throwing up during or after coughing fits and exhaustion following a coughing fit.

In babies, the cough can be minimal or not even there. Babies may have a symptom known as “apnea.” Apnea is a pause in the child’s breathing pattern. Babies too young for vaccination are at greatest risk for life-threatening cases of pertussis. In babies younger than 1 year old who get pertussis, about half need care in the hospital. The younger the baby, the more likely treatment in the hospital will be needed.

How Pertussis Spreads

Whooping cough (pertussis) is most contagious before the coughing starts. People with pertussis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the pertussis bacteria. Many babies are infected by parents, older siblings, or other caregivers who might not even know they have the disease.

Pertussis In California

There were 4,705 cases of pertussis with onset in 2015 reported to the California Department of Public Health, for a rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000 population. This includes 271 hospitalizations; 70 (26%) of these required intensive care. Of those hospitalized, 179 (66%) were infants younger than four months of age. Of those with pertussis onset in 2015, there were two deaths: one was a baby that was less than three weeks of age at the time of disease onset, and the other was an elderly woman with underlying health problems. (CDPH Pertussis Report dated June 27, 2016.)

Public Health Clinics in San Bernardino County

Pertussis vaccine is available at County Public Health Clinics. To make an appointment call 1 (800) 722-4777.

How To Prevent Pertussis

The best way to prevent pertussis (whooping cough) among babies, children, teens, and adults is to get vaccinated. Also, keep babies and other people at high risk for pertussis complications away from infected people. There are two vaccines used in the United States to help prevent whooping cough: DTaP and Tdap. These vaccines also provide protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Children younger than 7 years old get DTaP, while older children and adults get Tdap. Babies should begin their DTaP series by 2 months of age.

Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Child Care or Preschool
Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Grades TK/K-12

A single dose of Tdap is recommended for:

  • Children and teens 11 through 18 years of age
  • Adults 19 years of age and older
  • Children 7-10 years of age who are not fully vaccinated against pertussis
  • Pregnant women

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pregnant women get a Tdap vaccine between the 27th and 36th week of each pregnancy, to create protective antibodies that pass to the baby before birth. These antibodies provide the baby some short-term protection against whooping cough in early life when the baby is too young to get vaccinated with DTaP.

Mumps

What Is Mumps?

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The virus that causes Mumps primarily affects the parotid glands — one of three pairs of saliva-producing (salivary) glands, situated below and in front of your ears. Mumps is easily spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract.

What Are the Symptoms?

Mumps is best known for the puffy cheeks and swollen jaws that it causes. This is a result of swollen salivary glands. The most common symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks.

How Do I Prevent Getting Mumps?

Mumps can be prevented with MMR vaccine. This protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. CDC recommends children get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults, who do not have evidence of immunity, should also be up-to-date on their MMR vaccination.

Children may also get MMRV vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children who are 12 months through 12 years of age.

Mumps on College Campuses

Mumps – CDC
Mumps – CDPH

mumps

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/cds/copy-of-copy-of-tb-emerging-diseases/


Page Title: Emerging Diseases

Page Content:


A CDC message to infection preventionists:

Candida auris

Candida auris is a fungus that causes serious infections and spreads in healthcare facilities. Infection preventionists, healthcare personnel, and laboratory staff can all help prevent it from spreading.

Why is Candida auris a problem?

  • It causes serious infections. C. auris can cause bloodstream and other types of invasive infections, particularly in patients in hospitals and nursing homes who have many medical problems. More than 1 in 3 patients die within a month of being diagnosed with an invasive C. auris infection.
  • It is often multidrug-resistant. Antifungal medications commonly used to treat other Candida infections often don’t work for C. auris. Some C. auris isolates are resistant to all three major classes of antifungal medications.
  • It is becoming more common. Although C. auris was just discovered in 2009, the number of cases has grown quickly. Since 2009, it has been reported in dozens of countries, including the United States.
  • It is difficult to identify. C. auris can be misidentified as other types of fungus unless specialized laboratory methods are used. Correctly identifying C. auris is critical for starting measures to stop its spread and prevent outbreaks.
  • It can spread and cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Just like other multidrug-resistant organisms such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. auris can be transmitted in healthcare settings and cause outbreaks. It can colonize patients for many months, persist in the environment, and withstand some commonly used healthcare facility disinfectants.

Early detection and infection control can limit the spread of C. auris.

Prepare for C. auris in your facility

  • Work with your laboratory to ensure the fungus identification method used in your facility can identify C. auris. If it cannot, know when to suspect C. auris and send suspected isolates to your state or local public health department for further identification.
  • Begin surveillance. Establish a protocol with your laboratory so that your department is promptly informed when C. auris is suspected.
    • If your laboratory is not equipped to identify C. auris, begin surveillance for the organisms that commonly represent a C. auris misidentification. See https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/recommendations  for common misidentifications by different yeast identification methods.
  • Know which patients are at higher risk for C. auris infection or asymptomatic colonization. These include:
    • Patients who have received healthcare in post-acute care facilities (e.g., nursing homes), especially those with ventilator units.
    • Patients recently hospitalized outside the United States, especially in countries with known C. auris cases (visit www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris for a map of countries), and patients infected or colonized with carbapenemase-producing bacteria.
  • Have a response plan. Discuss recommendations for infection prevention and control of C. auris with healthcare personnel, including environmental services.

What should I do if there is C. auris in my facility?

  • Check the CDC website for the most up-to-date guidance on identifying and managing auris: www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris.
  • Report possible or confirmed aurist est results immediately to your public health department.
  • Ensure adherence to CDC recommendations for infection control, including
    • Placing patients infected or colonized with C. auris on Transmission-Based Precautions and, whenever possible, in a single room.
    • Making sure gown and gloves are accessible and used appropriately.
    • Reinforcing hand hygiene.
    • Coordinate with environmental services to monitor and ensure the patient care environment is cleaned using a disinfectant with an Environmental Protection Agency claim for C. auris or, if not available, for Clostridioides difficile. These products can be found at www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/c-auris-infection-control.html. Some disinfectants used in healthcare facilities (e.g., quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs]) may not be effective against C. auris, despite claims about effectiveness against C. albicans or other fungi. Work with the environmental services team to monitor the cleaning process.
  • After consulting with public health personnel, screen contacts of case-patients to identify patients with auris colonization. Use the same infection control measures for patients found to be colonized.
  • When a patient is being transferred from your facility (e.g., to a nursing home or other hospital), clearly communicate the patient’s auris status to receiving healthcare providers.

CDPH Candida auris Toolkit for Healthcare Facilities (PDF)

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19, formerly known as 2019-nCoV) is a virus that has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness. The first detection of COVID-19 occurred in Wuhan, China. Initially it was thought to be animal-to-person transmission, due to the majority of the infected being linked to the animal and seafood market. However, after a growing number of patients having no ties to these markets, it is indicated that person-to-person transmission is occurring. It is unclear at this time how easily the virus is being spread between people. For the most recent situation summaries and updates please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web page.

Symptoms and Complications

The symptoms of COVID-19 infection range from little to no symptoms, to individuals being severely ill and dying. Some symptoms of COVID-19 include, but are not limited to:

         • Fever
         • Cough
         • Shortness of breath

Currently the CDC believes that symptoms appear in as little as 2 days or as long as 14 days after being exposed. These times are based off of the previous incubation period of MERS viruses.

Transmission

Coronaviruses come from a large family of viruses that are commonly found in different animal species such as camels, cattle, cats, and bats. It is rare for a coronavirus to infect a person, and then spread from that person to another person, such as cases of MERS and SARS.

In the case of person-to-person transmission it is thought to have been transferred via respiratory droplets that are emitted into the air when an infected individuals coughs or sneezes. This is similar to how influenza and other respiratory illnesses are spread. It is important to look at how easily a virus is able to be spread from person-to-person. Some viruses are extremely contagious, such as measles, while others are much less contagious. COVID-19 is being considered a serious public health threat by the CDC, however, based on the current information, the immediate health risk to the general public in America is considered low for the time being.

Prevention and Treatment

Currently there is no vaccine to prevent COVID-19. The best prevention is avoiding the virus as much as possible. The CDC also always recommends everyday preventative measures be taken to help prevent the virus being spread. These measures include:

          • Hand washing often with soap and water for no less than 20 seconds.
          • If access to soap and water is not available, the use of alcohol base sanitizer is recommended.
          • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth without first washing your hands.
          • Avoid contact with sick individuals
          • Stay home if you are sick
          • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then immediately dispose of the tissue in the trash.
          • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that are frequently touched as much as possible.

By having these everyday habits you can help to prevent the spread of several different viruses, including COVID-19.

 

Tuberculosis Prevention and Care

The Tuberculosis Control Program performs disease detection, surveillance, case management, and investigatory activities designed to control the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the County. The program provides tuberculosis information and educational resources for the Department, medical community, and general public. Please call (800) 722-4794 to speak to a TB staff member.

Nationwide Drug Shortage

To obtain up to date information regarding the status of the shortage please visit the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research-Regulated Products website listed below. https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/safety-availability-biologics/cber-regulated-products-current-shortages

The following link outlines the CDC’s recommendations for dealing with the reduction in TB testing capability. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6824a4.htm

Clinical Services Offered

Skin testing for tuberculosis is offered at Department of Public Health clinics throughout the County. For more information. Please call (800) 722-4777 for an appointment and information on clinic locations and times.

Basic TB Facts
  • Q: What is TB?
    A: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air.
  • Q: How is TB spread?
    A: TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease in the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. People who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected.
  • Q: What is a latent TB infection?
    A: People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, but they are not sick because the germs are not active. These people do not have symptoms of TB disease and they cannot spread the germs to others. However, they may develop TB disease in the future.
  • Q: How do you know if you have latent TB?
    A: A TB skin test is used to test for latent TB.
  • Q:Treatment
    A: Both latent TB infection and TB disease can be treated with medication.
Tuberculosis - Information for Providers

Per Health and Safety Code Section 120175, local health departments as designated by the Health Officer are responsible for preventing the spread of tuberculosis within their jurisdictions. They are granted the authority to take the necessary measures to prevent the spread. When care is not provided by the department of public health TB Controller, the local health department tuberculosis program will oversee a case. View the Guidelines for Oversight of Tuberculosis Care. For information you can also visit the Current CDPH-CTCA Joint Guidelines website.

The Tuberculosis Control Program offers case management services to all patients with active TB disease. A TB clinician and controller is also available to answer any questions regarding the medical management of your patient. Call 800-722-4794 to speak to a TB clinician and controller.

The Tuberculosis Control Program also offers directly observed therapy (DOT) to patients who meet certain criteria. Please read the Guidelines for DOT for information on eligibility criteria.

Report a Case of Tuberculosis

Health care providers must report suspected or confirmed cases of TB to the Tuberculosis Control Program. Please fill out a TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines for your hospitalized or clinic patient and fax to (909) 387-6377. Follow up with a phone call to one of our TB nurses at (800) 722-4794.

Initial TB Case Report Form
TB Health Facility Discharge Planning Guidelines

Reporting Tuberculosis Infection Using Skin Tuberculin Test or IGRA

Health care providers can submit a report of a TB infection, such as a positive skin tuberculin test or interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) (i.e. QuatiFERON Gold), using a Confidential Morbidity Report (CMR). This form is only to be used to report a positive tuberculin skin test or IGRA.

Any active or suspect cases must be made using the forms outlined in “Report a Case of Tuberculosis” section. These types of cases will not be accepted on a CMR form.

Tuberculosis - Information for Civil Surgeons

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised the Tuberculosis (TB) Technical Instructions for Civil Surgeons. These instructions went into effect on October 1, 2018. These instructions now require that civil surgeons report all persons diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) to the local health department where the applicant resides. These new requirements also include the use of a TB blood test [interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)] instead of a tuberculin skin test (TST) for TB screening of applicants’ ≥ 2 years old.

Civil surgeons are also required to refer all applicants whose CXR findings are suggestive of TB disease, all applicants with symptoms or signs of TB disease, all applicants with known HIV infection, and all applicants with extrapulmonary TB to the local health department for further evaluation.

To report LTBI using the CMR
To report TB disease or suggestive TB disease use the: Initial TB Case Report Form

tb test

TB-related Resources

TB Fact Sheet

Hoja de información sobre la Tuberculosis

Guidelines for Treatment:
California Tuberculosis Controllers Association

Health Information & Patient Fact Sheets:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of TB Elimination

TB Training & Educational Resources:
Curry International TB Center

Find an FQHC clinic for TB services click here

Latent TB Infection (LTBI) Resources

Provider Fact Sheet- Window Prophylaxis

Choice of LTBI treatment

LTBI Fact Sheets

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria
(germs). Syphilis is easy to cure. Without treatment, it can hurt your
body’s organs. Congenital syphilis is when a pregnant woman passes
syphilis to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth. It can cause a
woman to have a baby too early or cause a miscarriage or stillbirth (a
baby born dead). It can also lead to serious health problems in babies.

Symptoms

Often people don’t notice symptoms, so they don’t know they’re
infected. Signs of syphilis may include a sore near the area where the
germ entered the body (vagina, anus, lips, or mouth) or rash on one or
more areas of the body. The symptoms may appear and disappear.
The only way to know for sure is to get tested.

Transmission

You can get syphilis by having contact with a syphilis sore during
vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Sores can be found on the penis, vagina,
anus, or on the lips and mouth. You may not see the sores and they
don’t cause pain. Congenital syphilis spreads from mother to baby
during pregnancy or birth.

Treatment

Syphilis can be treated and cured with antibiotics (medicine that kills
germs). Make sure your sex partner(s) get tested and treated too. This
will help them stay healthy, avoid infecting others, and avoid
re-infecting you.

Prevention and Testing

  • Use condoms.
  • Go to your doctor for testing and treatment as early as possible.

If you don’t have a regular doctor, call (800) 722-4777 to make
an appointment for clinic services at San Bernardino County
clinics.
Test if you are experiencing symptoms. Test if you are getting tested
for other STDs. If you are having sex without using a condom and/or
have multiple sex partners, get tested every 6 months. If you are a
man having sex with other men, get tested every 3-6 months. Test if
you are a woman and plan to get pregnant. If you’re pregnant, remind
your doctor to test you three times: during your first trimester (1 – 12
weeks), third trimester (28 – 32 weeks), and at delivery.

 

Measles

What Is Measles?

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease. Symptoms include a high fever, runny nose (coryza), cough, loss of appetite, a rash, and red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis). The rash usually lasts 5–6 days, begins at the hairline, moves to the face and upper neck, and proceeds down the body.

How Long Does It Take to Show Signs of Measles After Being Exposed?

It takes an average of 7-14 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash appears approximately 14 days after exposure, usually 2–3 days after the fever begins.

What Should Be Done If Someone Is Exposed to Measles?

Notification of the exposure should be communicated to a doctor. If the person exposed has not been vaccinated, measles vaccine may prevent disease if given within 72 hours of exposure. Immune globulin (a blood product containing antibodies to the measles virus) may prevent or lessen the severity of measles if given within six days of exposure.

How Can Measles Be Prevented?

There is a vaccine available to prevent measles. Vaccines are available from your medical provider or the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health clinics. View the Public Health’s Clinic Locations webpage for information about clinic locations and times or call the Communicable Disease Section at 1 (800) 722-4794, Monday through Friday, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. to find a location near you. For more information, view the Centers of Disease Control Measles information webpage.

measles
Measles-related Resources

Measles Investigation Quick Sheet – California Department of Public Health

Laboratory Testing for Measles – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – California Department of Public Health

Measles Information – Centers for Disease Control

Hepatitis A

What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A (hep A) is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The mode of transmission for HAV is through the fecal-oral route and can be easily spread when consuming food, drinking water, or touching an object contaminated with fecal matter. Hepatitis A does not usually cause long-term liver damage. However, in rare cases, it can lead to a sudden loss of liver function.

Symptoms of hep A include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort, clay-colored bowel movements, loss of appetite, dark urine, joint pain, yellowing of the skin and white of your eyes (jaundice), and intense itching. They generally do not appear until a person has had the infection for a few weeks.

Unvaccinated individuals are at highest risk.

Individuals who are unvaccinated against hep A, those who travel to or live in countries where hep A is common, msm (men who have sex with men) individuals, the homeless, IV drug users, household members or caregivers of a person with hep A, and those with clotting factor disorders are at highest risk of hep A.

While hep A is highly contagious, it is easily preventable by getting the hep A vaccine.

zika
Zika-related Resources

SBCDPH News Release on the Zika Virus 2016

Zika Information – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Non-native Mosquito Species – California Department of Public Health (CDPH)

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Zika

Mosquitos and Vector Control Program – San Bernardino County Department of Public Health (SBCDPH)

Centers for Disease Control – For Healthcare Providers

Zika

What Is the Zika Virus?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that prior to 2015 occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. However, in May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert about the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Since then Zika virus has been identified in several countries throughout South and Central America, and the Caribbean. There are currently no local detections of the Zika virus in San Bernardino County. For up-to-date information on where Zika is locally transmitted, please view the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

Most people infected with Zika virus will not develop symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they are usually mild and include fever, joint pain, rash and eye redness. If you have returned from an affected country and have any of these symptoms within two weeks, or any other symptoms following your return, please contact your medical provider and tell the doctor where you have traveled. While there is no specific treatment for the Zika virus disease, the best recommendations are supportive care, rest, fluids and fever relief.

How Is It Spread?

Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, which actively bite humans during the daytime. These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. Zika virus is rarely spread from person to person. There have been rare instances of sexual and perinatal (mother-to-child) transmission, as well as through blood transfusion.

What Are the Symptoms?

Although most people who become infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, approximately 20% may develop acute onset of fever with rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms begin between 2 and 12 days (most commonly 3-7 days) after exposure to the virus. Other commonly reported symptoms include muscle aches and headache that may last for several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and deaths from the disease are rare. However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection.

Pregnancy and Zika

The Zika virus can cause birth defects in pregnant women. Researchers have amassed enough evidence to conclude that Zika infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly (abnormal brain and small heads) and other severe fetal brain defects.

Zika and Pregnancy Poster
Zika y Embarazo

What Can You Do?

Residents can still take precautions to avoid mosquito breeding areas around their homes by following these tips.

  • Drain or Dump – Remove all standing water around your property where mosquitos lay eggs such as birdbaths, old tires, pet watering dishes, buckets, or even clogged gutters.
  • Clean and scrub any container with stored water to remove possible eggs.
  • Dress – Wear shoes, socks, long pants and long-sleeved shirts whenever you are outdoors to avoid mosquito bites.
  • DEET – Apply insect repellent containing DEET, PICARDIN, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • Doors – Make sure doors and windows have tight-fitting screens. Repair or replace screens that have tears or holes to prevent mosquitos from entering your home.
  • Report – If you notice small black and white mosquitoes in or around your home contact the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, DEHS MVCP at (800) 442-2283.
whooping cough
Pertussis-related Resources

Pertussis – California Department of Public Health

Pertussis – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

What You Need to Know

Whooping cough, known medically as pertussis, is a very contagious disease caused by a bacteria. It can cause serious illness in babies, children and adults. Babies are most at risk, because they are too young to be fully vaccinated.

Symptoms

The disease usually starts with cold-like symptoms and maybe a mild cough or fever. Symptoms of pertussis usually develop within 5 to 10 days after being exposed, but sometimes not for as long as 3 weeks. People with pertussis have severe coughing attacks that can last for months. As the disease progresses, the traditional symptoms of pertussis may appear and include many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop”, throwing up during or after coughing fits and exhaustion following a coughing fit.

In babies, the cough can be minimal or not even there. Babies may have a symptom known as “apnea.” Apnea is a pause in the child’s breathing pattern. Babies too young for vaccination are at greatest risk for life-threatening cases of pertussis. In babies younger than 1 year old who get pertussis, about half need care in the hospital. The younger the baby, the more likely treatment in the hospital will be needed.

How Pertussis Spreads

Whooping cough (pertussis) is most contagious before the coughing starts. People with pertussis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the pertussis bacteria. Many babies are infected by parents, older siblings, or other caregivers who might not even know they have the disease.

Pertussis In California

There were 4,705 cases of pertussis with onset in 2015 reported to the California Department of Public Health, for a rate of 12.3 cases per 100,000 population. This includes 271 hospitalizations; 70 (26%) of these required intensive care. Of those hospitalized, 179 (66%) were infants younger than four months of age. Of those with pertussis onset in 2015, there were two deaths: one was a baby that was less than three weeks of age at the time of disease onset, and the other was an elderly woman with underlying health problems. (CDPH Pertussis Report dated June 27, 2016.)

Public Health Clinics in San Bernardino County

Pertussis vaccine is available at County Public Health Clinics. To make an appointment call 1 (800) 722-4777.

How To Prevent Pertussis

The best way to prevent pertussis (whooping cough) among babies, children, teens, and adults is to get vaccinated. Also, keep babies and other people at high risk for pertussis complications away from infected people. There are two vaccines used in the United States to help prevent whooping cough: DTaP and Tdap. These vaccines also provide protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Children younger than 7 years old get DTaP, while older children and adults get Tdap. Babies should begin their DTaP series by 2 months of age.

Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Child Care or Preschool
Pertussis Immunization Requirements for Grades TK/K-12

A single dose of Tdap is recommended for:

  • Children and teens 11 through 18 years of age
  • Adults 19 years of age and older
  • Children 7-10 years of age who are not fully vaccinated against pertussis
  • Pregnant women

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pregnant women get a Tdap vaccine between the 27th and 36th week of each pregnancy, to create protective antibodies that pass to the baby before birth. These antibodies provide the baby some short-term protection against whooping cough in early life when the baby is too young to get vaccinated with DTaP.

Mumps

What Is Mumps?

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The virus that causes Mumps primarily affects the parotid glands — one of three pairs of saliva-producing (salivary) glands, situated below and in front of your ears. Mumps is easily spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract.

What Are the Symptoms?

Mumps is best known for the puffy cheeks and swollen jaws that it causes. This is a result of swollen salivary glands. The most common symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks.

How Do I Prevent Getting Mumps?

Mumps can be prevented with MMR vaccine. This protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. CDC recommends children get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults, who do not have evidence of immunity, should also be up-to-date on their MMR vaccination.

Children may also get MMRV vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children who are 12 months through 12 years of age.

Mumps on College Campuses

Mumps – CDC
Mumps – CDPH

mumps

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/cds/emerging-diseases/


Page Title: Zika Virus

Page Content:

Zika Virus Infections in San Bernardino County

LAST UPDATED: June 27, 2018

Travel Associated Locally Acquired
25 0

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (yellow fever mosquitoes) or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Asian tiger mosquitoes). These mosquitoes are not native to California. However, since 2011 they have been detected in several California counties. An Aedes mosquito can only transmit Zika virus after it bites a person who has this virus in their blood. To date there has been no local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus in California. Thus far in California, Zika virus infections have been documented only in people who were infected while traveling to areas with ongoing Zika transmission, through sexual contact with an infected traveler, or through maternal-fetal transmission during pregnancy. Zika virus during pregnancy can cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in infants. Additionally, there is an association between Zika and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a disease affecting the nervous system.

  • Zika is spread primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus species mosquito.
  • Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus, which can cause severe birth defects.
  • Other modes of transmission:
    • Human to mosquito
    • Contact to infected blood
    • Sexual contact
  • There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika.

Women who are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant should not travel to areas with a CDC Zika travel notice.

Men who reside in or have traveled to an area with active Zika should use condoms or abstain from sex to avoid sexual transmission for at least 6 months.

If travel cannot be avoided, avoid insect bites using DEET insect repellent, light-colored long sleeves, and mosquito nets. For more information on how to protect yourself from Zika while traveling, check out the Zika Travel Packing List.

map legend

*Mosquitoes that can spread Zika usually live in places below 6,500 feet. The chances of getting Zika from mosquitoes living above that altitude are very low.

Note: Recommendations for travel within the continental United States may differ from those for international travel. These recommendations are usually made at the level of the city or county, so you may need to zoom in on the map to see them.

Protect Your Community

  • Zika can be introduced to local mosquito populations.
  • Eliminate mosquito breeding sites, like containers with standing water to ensure no local transmission occurs.
  • Mosquito larvae can develop in a bottle cap full of water. Even without water, the eggs can survive for months.

Protect yourself from mosquito bites

Yellow fever mosquito
Asian tiger mosquito

Related Links

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/zika-virus/


Page Title: Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Page Content:

Three common STDs- chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis have reached a new, all-time high in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. San Bernardino County is no exception.  In 2018, there were 13,379 reported cases of chlamydia, 3,904 gonorrhea cases, and 1,536 total syphilis cases.   

Among 2018 total STD cases, as many as 12% of females were reported pregnant. One of the most common STD that is incredibly harmful to infants and preventable is congenital syphilis. In San Bernardino County congenital syphilis has increased a staggering 675% since 2014. In 2018 alone, there were 31 cases of congenital syphilis reported. San Bernardino County is dedicated to reducing the number of babies born with syphilis by increasing provider awareness of congenital syphilis and rising rates of syphilis in women. The Syphilis in Women Action Toolkit includes clinical resources for healthcare providers and educational materials for their patients.  

All STDs can have serious complications including chronic illness, infertility, hospitalization, and death. San Bernardino County aims to prevent these complications by educating County residents and targeting impacted groups, including racial and ethnic minority populations, adolescent and young adults, females of childbearing age, and gay and bisexual men. 

By partnering with schools, medical providers, and other community organizations, the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health works to ensure access to screening, treatment, education, and medical provider training in an effort to reduce STD infections. 

 

Information for Community Members
Information for Providers

Page Link: https://wp.sbcounty.gov/dph/programs/cds/stds/